FEAST HQ WG6_Publications

2018年9月25日~28日の4日間に渡り、福岡にて「世界社会科学フォーラム(WSSF: World Social Science Forum)2018」が開催され、FEASTでは4つのセッションをオーガナイズしました。WG6の研究成果については、「CS03-02: The wild food basket: recreating urban and rural ecosystems as food sources(ワイルドフードバスケット:食料源としての都市と農村のエコシステムの再生)」(25日)、「CS4-07: Building a new food economy in Japan through sharing, collaboration, and commoning(日本におけるニューフードエコノミーの構築:共有、協働、コモンズ化)」(26日)、「CS1-03: Lifeworlds of Sustainability and Wellbeing in a Shrinking Japan(縮小する日本における豊かさの向上を実現するライフワールド)」(28日)の3つのセッションにて、以下の7つの発表を行いました。

CS03-02: The wild food basket: recreating urban and rural ecosystems as food sources
Chair: Norie Tamura
Enhancing food security beyond access to formal food markets will require eaters to diversify their palates and look to natural ecosystems as sources of sustenance.  Wild plants, animals, and insects continue to be a key component of meals eaten all over the world, and a revival of wild food production and consumption is happening in places where nature’s bounty had become unfashionable. Active rewilding, conservation management, or the gradual under management of cultivated landscapes has enabled urban and rural ecosystems to become “wild food baskets” for consumers and producers.  This session explores the recreation of the wild food basket in both urban and rural settings and what meaning it holds for larger discussions of food security, dietary change, and ecosystem management.  Special attention is paid to sources of wild protein, high-value niche products, the revival of wild food harvesting practices, and the creation or maintenance of wild food markets.

フォーマルな食料市場へのアクセス確保の域を超えて食の安全保障を強化するには、消費者は味覚の幅を広げ、食料源として自然生態系(エコシステム)に目を向ける必要がある。野生の植物、動物、昆虫などは、世界各地で重要な食料として口にされてきた。自然の恵みが時代遅れと捉えられている地域においても、こうした自然界の食べものは生産・消費されている。都市部および農村部のエコシステムでは、能動的な生態系の回復を目指すリワイルディリング(rewilding)や保全管理が進み、さらには人の手が及んだランドスケープの管理からの段階的撤退により、生産者、消費者にとっての「ワイルドフードバスケット(wild food basket)」が構築されている。本セッションでは、都市部、農村部におけるワイルドフードバスケット再生について、また、それが食の安全保障、食の変化、生態系管理に関する議論にどのような意味を成すのかについて検討する。特に、自然のタンパク源、高価値なニッチ市場向けの商品、自然界の食料採集の復活、またその市場の構築や管理に焦点を当てる。

1. “A look into Bhutan’s transitions in wild food security”
Mai Kobayashi
Bhutan has been looked to in recent years, among other things, as a “lighthouse” in the world of environmental conservation and sustainable development. However, with increasing urbanization and depopulation in rural communities, food security has become an issue of increasing national importance. The government has expanded their efforts to support food production through an emphasis on increasingly market oriented approaches and distribution systems. Alongside an increase in legislation and rules to regulate these changes, there has been an increasing presence of the religious body in influencing what foods people grow or catch and consume.
This paper looks at factors influencing the formalization of informal food practices with a particular emphasis on wild food (wild vegetables and wild meats) collection and consumption within Bhutan. This paper is based household questionnaire surveys and personal interviews conducted in three districts Bhutan in January and February 2018.


2. “The challenge of rural revitalization:Developing and rediscovering wild food harvesting practices”
Norie Tamura
Before modernization, transportation infrastructure was insufficient in most mountainous villages in Japan. This made securing a self-sufficient food system essential for the survival of people in those isolated villages. In addition to produce from home gardens, wild food such as wild vegetables and fungi constituted an important part of a regional food system as they supplemented nutrients and were also cash crops. With the progress of modernization, however, wild food has been replaced by general food products distributed from distant production sites and related harvesting practices have been lost in those villages: the modern industrial food system replaced the traditional local food system.
However, knowledge and skills related to wild food have been recently rediscovered and reevaluated as local resources in Japan. In the context of rural revitalization, more and more local groups and networks are trying to adopt local wild food traditions as a new resource for rural development. This paper presents the results of a case study conducted in a mountainous village in Fukui Prefecture, Japan, and shows how the value of wild food has been changing in the local foodscape as well as how rediscovering related practices impacts the regional sustainability through rural revitalization.

近代以前の山村は交通の便が悪く、食の自給は地域の基本的な姿であった。自家用の栽培野菜に加えて、山菜やきのこなどのワイルドフード(wild food)は、貴重な食料源であり換金手段であった。しかし近代化の進展により、自然界の食べものの価値は、遠隔の生産地から流通してきた一般の食べものへと取って代わられ、その採集の実践は忘れられてきた。

3. “Honey bees in urban Kyoto—a revival story?  Bee-friendly zones and potential impact on urban agriculture”
Maximilan Spiegelberg
When talking about beekeeping’s contribution to the wild food basket, we talk about a bridge between wildlife and domestication, individual pleasure and public service, traditional practice and niche-innovation. Bees produce on the one hand the high value product honey, are sometimes consumed in their larva stage, and contribute on the other hand to the flourishment of food and ecosystems through pollination. But what if the number of beekeepers is shrinking, landscapes change, and bees are threatened by parasites and pesticides?
This presentation looks at some of the results from conceptual and spatial mapping, semi-structured interviews, and online surveys, researching public attitude towards and knowledge about honeybees, consumer behavior around bee products, as well as beekeeping conditions, motivations, and practices in the urban setting of Kyoto, Japan.

養蜂がワイルドフードバスケット(wild food basket)に担う役割について考察するということは、野生生物と家畜、個人的な楽しみ喜びと公益サービス、伝統養蜂の実践と養蜂技術の一部革新をつなぐ架け橋について考察するということである。ミツバチは高価値なハチミツをつくり、幼虫が食用とされるほか、花粉媒介者として食や生態系の発展に寄与する。しかし、養蜂家の数が減少し、景観は変遷の一途を辿り、そして寄生害虫や農薬がミツバチを危険に晒しているとすれば、どうなるだろうか。

CS4-07: Building a new food economy in Japan through sharing, collaboration, and commoning
Chair: Christoph Rupprecht and Steven McGreevy
The essential nature of food in our daily lives means food is constantly bought and sold through ubiquitous food markets and their economic circuits. These systems of provision have proven very difficult to change, even though their practices are unsustainable and their power structures are unequal. Japan’s food system relies heavily on imported food and farm inputs, creates an enormous quantity of waste, and has severely weakened domestic markets. However, food in particular has always been at the center of informal economic relationships between people in various forms of sharing and gifting. Food consumption and production can be communal activities that create closer relational ties to people, places, and nature, foster greater awareness, and increase well-being. New forms of food sharing, collaboration, and commoning are emerging in Japan that demonstrate the potential for building a new food economy based on principles of solidarity and collective well-being. This session is a collection of cases from Japan and case-comparisons with examples from outside of Japan that illustrate this potential and capture the broad range of activities that make up the new food economy.


4. “Informal management and sharing of seeds in Japan”
Ayako Kawai, Australian National University
Over the past century, the dominant system of vegetable seed production in Japan has shifted from informal seed production by farmers to formal production by seed companies. Local farmers used to save seeds on their own, but now mainly purchase hybrid seeds every year, as using these seeds is a condition for market distribution. This shift has been associated with the commercialization of vegetables, and thus with the need for mass-production of highly standardized vegetables. Meanwhile, seed saving activities in the informal domain have become marginalized due to changes in market and local food culture, and with the breakdown of intergenerational transfer of farming practices. As a result, diverse vegetable varieties are being lost.
Seed saving practices in informal domains could potentially contribute to on-farm conservation of agricultural diversity. Keeping diverse varieties and associated skills in the hands of farmers can also contribute to the well-being of the farmers.
In contemporary Japan, movements are emerging within which seed saving is practiced in the informal domain. Some of them are local initiatives attempting to conserve traditional varieties that are disappearing, some are organic farmers struggling to make their living out of selling seed-saved vegetables, and some are people practicing seed saving as part of their lifestyle. I will introduce those different seed saving cultures, and show how seeds, skills and values are shared among members.


5. “The informal food economy of unattended food stands: case studies from Tsushima and Kyoto”
Mai Kobayashi, Takanori Oishi (African Studies Center, TUFS)
Informal food activities are characterized by non-formalized human and financial resource structures, and their lack of trackable or registered activity with the state. As opposed to formal food systems, which relates to food as a commodity, the informal food system places more emphasis on food as process of co-production, or food as commons. In an attempt to deepen our understandings of the informal food system, this presentation explores the role of unattended vegetable stands in Japan, by focusing on to locations where such food stands have been found to exist in relatively high density. The two locations are Tsushima and Kyoto. Tsushima Island is located between Kyushu Island of Japan and the Korean peninsula, where a complex of small-scale (or minor) subsistence activities have been sustained throughout the island, including charcoal making, Shiitake mushroom cultivation, honeybee keeping based on forest resources; livestock breeding, organic farming in the valleys; and coastal fishery including seaweed collection and shellfish gathering. Despite its rich resources, the majority of residents have come to depend on imported foods and resources from mainland Japan. This has led to growing concerns over, and improved opportunities to enhance local food security. The area in Kyoto City, on the other hand, was located in the periphery of a city, and a popular tourist destination site. This paper will introduce and analyze various practices of unattended food stalls and how they are contributing to the overall food system.


CS1-03: Lifeworlds of Sustainability and Wellbeing in a Shrinking Japan
Chair:Steven McGreevy
Depopulation, aging, and economic stagnation in many countries are usually framed as negative issues to be avoided. In Japan, the socio-economic decline is interpreted as engendering a sense of society-wide precarity (Allison 2013). To some extent, however, there are signs that Japan’s mix of demographic and economic contraction is the unavoidable reality for much of the developed world (Magnus 2008, Matanle et al. 2011) and that consumerism itself, the driving force behind economic growth, may be fading from view (Cohen 2017). From a sustainability perspective, the inevitability of a shrinking society and economy aligns with renewed calls for “de-growing” the economy and decreasing material footprints (Giacomo et al. 2014). Formulating synergetic and effective responses to these emerging societal needs that, at the same time, maintain the high quality of life Japan enjoys is the focus of this session. Japan’s shrinking society represents an opportunity to reduce overall ecological impacts, rethink the values associated with wide-spread understandings of wellbeing, and restructure economic interrelationships to align with reduced resource consumption. Papers in this session explore the ways in which shrinking societies experiencing economic decline are enhancing sustainability and enabling new, more satisfying ways of living counter to contemporary adherence to mass consumerism and economic growth. Examples from urban and rural Japan highlight elements of agricultural landscapes and food, sanitation, and urban planning and design that share the potential positive benefits of shrinking societies.

世界各地で見られる人口減少、高齢化、経済の停滞は、通常、負の影響をもたらすものであり、回避されるべきとされてきた。日本でも、社会的・経済的停滞は、雇用に対する不安感を生み出している(Allison 2013)。しかし、日本で見られる人口減少と景気後退が入り混じる状況は、他の先進国にとっても不可避であり(Magnus 2008, Matanle et al. 2011)、経済成長を牽引する消費主義の存在自体を脅かすものであると言える(Cohen 2017)。しかし、持続可能性の観点から見ると、縮小社会と経済後退は、新たに提唱された経済の「脱成長(de-growing)」やマテリアルフットプリント削減につながるものである(Giacomo et al. 2014)。本セッションでは、日本が現在享受する生活の質を落とすことなく、こうした新たな社会のニーズに応える方策の策定に焦点を当てる。日本の縮小社会は、生態系への負荷を低減し、豊かさ(wellbeing)につながる価値観を再考し、経済の相互関係を再構築しうるものであり、それは資源消費の縮小にもつながる。そこで、景気後退の中にある縮小社会が、どのように持続可能性を高め、現在の大量消費と経済成長とは逆の新しい、より豊かな暮らしを実現しているのか探究する。日本の都市部、農村部の事例から、農業景観、食、公衆衛生、都市計画・設計といった要素を検証し、縮小社会に潜在する利点を明らかにする。

Allison, Anne. 2013. Precarious Japan. Duke University Press.
Cohen, Maurie. 2017. The Future of Consumer Society: Prospects for Sustainability in the New Economy. Oxford.
D’Alisa, Giacomo, Frederico Demaria, & Giorgos Kallis. 2014. Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era. Routledge.
Magnus, George. 2008. The Age of Aging: How Demographics are Changing the Global Economy and Our World. Wiley.
Matanle, Peter & Anthony Rausch with the Shrinking Regions Research Group. 2011. Japan’s Shrinking Regions in the 21st Century: Contemporary Responses to Depopulation and Socioeconomic Decline. Cambria Press.

6. “Redefining wellbeing amongst new settlers in a withering rural Japan”
Steven McGreevy
Japan’s rural areas are some of the hardest hit when facing the challenges of a shrinking society. Depopulated villages, abandoned farmhouses and fields, and limited capacity in providing basic public services are just some of the most visible problems. Yet, there are significant numbers of young people, families, and retirees who leave urban places and settle in the countryside to pursue new lifestyles and livelihoods, many of which involve agriculture. Why do they come and settle in the very places that are most at risk of vanishing? This paper presents data from a survey of new entry farmers to upland Nagano prefecture as well as case studies from various locations in rural Japan that detail ways in which newcomers are redefining individual and community wellbeing amidst deteriorating conditions. Alternative notions of a “good life” and the strength of relationships formed between newcomers and the environment and their community are just some of the reasons that make rural living attractive. We explore the potential of these ideas in the context of signifying a broader, society-wide shift in cultural values in modern Japan.


7. “Subsist and thrive: caring for people and nature in post-growth urban Japan”
Christoph Rupprecht
Post-growth Japan faces a huge infrastructure bill – not counting the investments necessary to adapt urban areas to a warming planet. How can residents subsist and thrive when the dominant paradigm of controlling nature in the city stops functioning? In this talk I attempt a radical shift from current ideas and concepts of government-led, controlled planning to explore how human and non-human wellbeing in shrinking cities might benefit from a stewardship approach. For this purpose, I draw upon a wide range of concepts from degrowth and more-than-human geography/planning to biocultural diversity theory and Japanese traditional ecological stewardship concepts of satoyama and satoumi.

ポスト経済成長期にある日本では、インフラ整備に多額の費用が必要となっている。しかし、そこには地球温暖化対策のための都市部への費用は含まれていない。都市部の自然をコントロールするパラダイムが機能しなくなったとき、どのようにすれば住民は存続、そして繁栄することができるのだろうか。本報告では、縮退都市という条件下で人と自然が健全な状態に保たれるには、スチュワードシップ・アプローチ(stewardship approach)がいかに有用であるが明らかにすることを目指し、現行の政府主導の計画立案からの抜本的な転換を試みる。このため、デグロース(脱成長)や人間の枠を超えた(more-than-human)地理学や計画立案から、生物文化的多様性理論、更には日本の伝統的な「里山」や「里海」といった環境管理スチュワードシップの概念を用いる。

(和訳:Yuko K.)

もう一つのセッション「CS4-05: Using game-based methods for sustainability transformations : lessons from practice and theory(ゲーム手法を用いて持続可能性の転換を考える:実践と理論から)」については、こちらからご覧いただけます。